(Enteric Fever; Paratyphoid Fever)
- Food or drinks handled by someone who is sick with typhoid fever
- Food or drinks handled by someone who has no symptoms but carries the bacteria
- Water or food contaminated by sewage
- Unpasteurized dairy products
- Unrefrigerated poultry products
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- Not drinking boiled or bottled water
- Eating raw shellfish
- Eating fruits and vegetables that are raw or have been washed with contaminated water
- Living in, or recent travel, to a country with poor sanitation
- Decreased stomach acid, usually from taking acid reducing medications
Careful food monitoring in areas where typhoid fever is prevalent:
- Drink only bottled water or water that has been boiled for at least one minute. This includes ice.
- Eat foods while they are still hot. Ensure that they are thoroughly cooked.
- Avoid any raw fruits and vegetables that cannot be peeled.
- Avoid raw shellfish.
- Avoid unpasteurized dairy products.
- Vaccination is recommended if you are planning to visit a country where typhoid fever is prevalent. Be aware that the vaccine is not always effective. Careful food monitoring is still important.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
World Health Organization http://www.who.int
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Bhan MK, Bahl R, Bhatnagar S. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Lancet. 2005;366(9487):749-762.
Bui YG, Trépanier S, Milord F, et al. Cases of malaria, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever Among VFRs, Quebec (Canada). J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):373-378.
Johnson KJ, Gallagher NM, Mintz ED, et al. From the CDC: New country-specific recommendations for pre-travel typhoid vaccination. J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):430-433.
Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid%5Ffever. Updated May 14, 2013. Accessed June 19, 2014.
Travel medicine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 14, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2014.
Typhoid VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/typhoid.html. Updated May 29, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -