Kidney Stones -- Adult
(Renal Colic; Renal Lithiasis; Nephrolithiasis; Renal Calculi)
- Calcium oxalate
- Calcium phosphate
- Uric acid
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- Calcium oxalate or phosphorus stones—These kidney stones form when the concentration of calcium or other minerals in the urine becomes too high or when minerals that prevent stone formation are too low.
- Struvite stones—These stones develop as a result of a urinary tract infection. The stones are composed of ammonium, magnesium, and phosphate salts.
- Uric acid stones—These stones form when urine is acidic. This may also occur in people with gout or those who are on chemotherapy.
- Cystine stones—These stones form due to a rare genetic disorder that causes the kidneys to build up excess amounts of cystine. Cystine is one of the amino acids that make up proteins.
- White adult male under 50 years old
- Personal history of kidney stones
- Family history of kidney stones
- Excess dietary sodium and oxalate. Oxalate can be found in green, leafy vegetables, chocolate, nuts, or tea.
- Low fluid intake, especially during warmer weather, which can lead to dehydration.
- Overactive parathyroid gland.
- Chronic bowel disorders such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
- Some diuretics.
- Calcium-based antacids.
- History of urinary infection
- More common in women
- Excess dietary red meat or poultry
- Sharp, stabbing pain in the mid-back that may occur every few minutes and last from 20 minutes to one hour
- Pain in the lower abdomen, groin, or genital areas
- Nausea and vomiting
- Blood in the urine
- Frequent urge to urinate
- Burning pain during urination
- Urine tests and cultures
- Blood tests
- Very large or growing larger
- Causing bleeding or damage to the kidney
- Causing infection
- Blocking the flow of urine
- Unable to pass
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
- Drink plenty of fluids, especially water.
- Talk to your doctor about what diet is right for you. Depending on the type of stone you have, you may have to avoid certain food or drinks.
- Depending on what type of stone you have, certain medications may be prescribed to keep stones from forming again.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://niddk.nih.gov
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Borghi L, Meschi T, et al. Dietary therapy in idiopathic nephrolithiasis. Nutr Rev. 2006;64:301-312.
Coe FL, Evan A, et al. Kidney stone disease. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2598-2608.
Delvecchio FC, Preminger GM. Medical management of stone disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2003;13(3):229-233.
Kang DE, Sur RL, et al. Long-term lemonade based dietary manipulation in patients with hypocitraturic nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 2007;177:1358-1362.
Kidney stones. Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=148. Updated April 2013. Accessed March 3, 2014.
Kidney stones in adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults/index.htm. Updated January 28, 2013. Accessed March 3, 2014.
Management of ureteral calculi: EAU/AUA nephrolithiasis panel (2007). American Urological Association website. http://www.auanet.org/education/guidelines/ureteral-calculi.cfm. Accessed March 3, 2014.
Martini LA, Wood RJ. Should dietary calcium and protein be restricted in patients with nephrolithiasis? Nutr Rev. 2000;58:111-117.
Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 17, 2014. Accessed March 3, 2014.
Pearle MS, Lingemann JE, et al. Prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy for lower pole caliceal calculi 1 cm or less. J Urol. 2005;173:2005-2009.
Vitamin C. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/biomedical-libraries/natural-alternative-treatments. Updated August 2013. Accessed March 3, 2014.
1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Hollingsworth JM, Rogers MA, et al. Medical therapy to facilitate urinary stone passage: A meta-analysis. Lancet. 2006;368:1171-1179.
1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mora B, Giorni E, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: an effective treatment for pain caused by renal colic in emergency care. J Urol. 2006;175:1737-1741; discussion 1741.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 03/03/2014 -