Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
- Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 )
- Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
- Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)
- Fish Oil (and Its Constituents)
- Milk Thistle
- Music Therapy
- Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
- Vitamin B 3 (Niacin)
- Vitamin B 6
- Vitamin C
- Several Natural Treatments for Tardive Dyskinesia
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Enhancing Drug Action
Other Drug Side Effects
Herbs and Supplements to Avoid
1 Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, et al. Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56:29-36.
2 Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of glycine adjuvant therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;169:610-617.
3 Javitt DC, Zylberman I, Zukin SR, et al. Amelioration of negative symptoms in schizophrenia by glycine. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1234-1236.
4 Semba J. Glycine therapy of schizophrenia; its rationale and a review of clinical trials [translated from Japanese]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1998;18:71-80.
5 Potkin SG, Jin Y, Bunney BG, et al. Effect of clozapine and adjunctive high-dose glycine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:145-147.
6 Evins AE, Fitzgerald SM, Wine L, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of glycine added to clozapine in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:826-828.
7 Liu P, Luo H, Shen Y, et al. Combined use of Ginkgo biloba extracts on the efficacy and adverse reactions of various antipsychotics [translated from Chinese]. Chin J Clin Pharmacol. 1997;13:193-198.
8 Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Zhang PY, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62:878-883.
9 Tsai G, Yang P, Chung LC, et al. D-serine added to antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:1081-1089.
10 Peet M, Brind J, Ramchand CN, et al. Two double-blind placebo-controlled pilot studies of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2001;49:243-251.
11 Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:2071-2074.
12 Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1596-1598.
13 Folkers K. Basic chemical research on coenzyme Q 10 and integrated clinical research on therapy of diseases. In Lenaz G, ed. Coenzyme Q. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1985.
14 Kishi T, Makino K, Okamoto T, et al. Inhibition of myocardial respiration by psychotherapeutic drugs and prevention by coenzyme Q. In: Folkers K, Yamagami T, Littarru GP, eds. International Symposium on Coenzyme Q. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q. Vol 2. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing; 1980:139-157.
15 Palasciano G, et al. The effect of silymarin on plasma levels of malondialdehyde in patients receiving long term treatment with psychotropic drugs. Curr Ther Res. 1994;55:537-545.
16 Hoffman RE, Boutros NN, Hu S, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Lancet. 2000;355:1073-1075.
17 Rollnik JD, Huber TJ, Mogk H, et al. High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenic patients. Neuroreport. 2000;11:4013-4015.
18 Shamir E, Laudon M, Barak Y, et al. Melatonin improves sleep quality of patients with chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61:373-377.
19 Hawkins DR, Bortin AW, Runyon RP. Orthomolecular psychiatry: niacin and megavitamin therapy. Psychosomatics. 1970;11:517-21.
20 Hoffer A. Megavitamin B-3 therapy for schizophrenia. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1971;16:499-504.
21 Newbold HL, Mosher LR. Niacin and the schizophrenic patient. Am J Psychiatry. 1970;127:535-536.
22 Petrie WM, Ban TA, Ananth JV. The use of nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int Pharmacopsychiatry. 1981;16:245-250.
23 Petrie WM, Ban TA. Vitamins in psychiatry. Do they have a role? Drugs. 1985;30:58-65.
24 Procter A. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Br J Psychiatry. 1991;159:271-272.
25 Vaughan K, McConaghy N. Megavitamin and dietary treatment in schizophrenia: a randomised, controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1999;33:84-88.
26 Wittenborn JR, Weber ES, Brown M. Niacin in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973;28:308-315.
27 Richardson MA. Amino acids in psychiatric disease. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1990.
28 Mosnik DM, Spring B, Rogers K, et al. Tardive dyskinesia exacerbated after ingestion of phenylalanine by schizophrenic patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1997;16:136-146.
29 Schelosky L, et al. Kava and dopamine antagonism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 1995;58:639-640.
30 Attenburrow MJ, Odontiadis J, Murray BJ, et al. Chromium treatment decreases the sensitivity of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Psychopharmacology. 2002;159:432-436.
31 Reading SA. Chromium picolinate. J Fla Med Assoc. 1996;83:29-31.
32 Brinker F. Herb contraindications and drug interactions. 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications; 1998:140-141.
33 Strous RD, Maayan R, Lapidus R, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone augmentation in the management of negative, depressive, and anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry . 2003;60:133-141.
34 Tsai G, Lane HY, Yang P, et al. Glycine transporter I inhibitor, N-methylglycine (sarcosine), added to antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry . 2004;55:452-6.
35 Peet M. Eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia and depression: rationale and preliminary double-blind clinical trial results. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids . 2003;69:477-85.
36 Holi MM, Eronen M, Toivonen K, et al. Left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull . 2004;30:429-34.
37 Diaz P, Bhaskara S, Dursun SM, et al. Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Clozapine Plus Glycine in Refractory Schizophrenia Negative Results. J Clin Psychopharmacol . 2005;25:277-278.
38 Lerner V, Bergman J, Statsenko N, et al. Vitamin b(6) treatment in acute neuroleptic-induced akathisia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry . 2004;65:1550-1554.
39 Nachshoni T, Ebert T, Abramovitch Y, et al. Improvement of extrapyramidal symptoms following dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration in antipsychotic treated schizophrenia patients: A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial. Schizophr Res . 2005 Aug 25. [Epub ahead of print]
40 Ritsner MS, Gibel A, Ratner Y, et al. Improvement of sustained attention and visual and movement skills, but not clinical symptoms, after dehydroepiandrosterone augmentation in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover Trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26:495-499.
41 Kaptsan A, Odessky A, Osher Y, et al. Lack of efficacy of 5 grams daily of creatine in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:881-884.
42 Berger GE, Proffitt TM, McConchie M, et al. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in first-episode psychosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1867-1875.
43 Buchanan RW, Javitt DC, Marder SR, et al. The cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia trial (CONSIST): the efficacy of glutamatergic agents for negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1593-602.
44 Berk M, Copolov D, Dean O, et al. N-acetyl cysteine as a glutathione precursor for schizophrenia—a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr 22.
45 Tranulis C, Sepehry AA, Galinowski A, et al. Should we treat auditory hallucinations with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation? A metaanalysis. Can J Psychiatry. 2008;53:577-586
46 Amminger GP, Schäfer MR, Papageorgiou K, et al. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;67(2):146.
47 Duraiswamy G, Thirthalli J, Nagendra HR, Gangadhar BN. Yoga therapy as an add-on treatment in the management of patients with schizophrenia—a randomized controlled trial. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2007;116(3):226-232.
48 Mössler K, Chen X, Heldal TO, Gold C. Music therapy for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;12:CD004025.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -